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Caleb Lewis
Caleb Lewis

Casing And Cementing Pdf Download ((INSTALL))

The global crude oil production is expected to grow at a CAGR of more than 1.65% in the forecast period of 2020-2025. Increasing upstream activities in regions like Middle-East and the United States are driving the need for casing and cementation hardware. An increase in exploration activities in the shale reservoir and deepwater reservoirs are also driving the market in the forecast period. On the other hand, the global decline in crude oil prices and the shift towards renewable energy can limit the upstream activities in the forecast period and restrain market growth.

casing and cementing pdf download

The casing and cementation hardware market is moderately fragmented. Some of the major companies operating in the market include National-Oilwell Varco, Inc., Halliburton Company, Weatherford International plc, Vallourec S.A, and Baker Hughes Company.

In-depth industry statistics and market share insights of the Casing and Cementation Hardware Market sector for 2020, 2021, and 2022. The Casing and Cementation Hardware Market research report provides a comprehensive outlook of the market size and an industry growth forecast for 2023 to 2028. Available to download is a free sample file of the Casing and Cementation Hardware Market report PDF.

Cementing operations in wellbores, especially for long casings, are often challenging and prone to deficiencies when not properly planned and executed. While exploring for and exploiting of geothermal resources at temperatures above the critical point of water was attempted in different drilling projects in recent years, the well design, and especially the procedure to run and cement long production casings became a key challenge for drilling engineers. For the first time, a reverse cementing job for a 2.97 km long production casing in a high-temperature geothermal well could be monitored and analyzed using a combination of permanently installed distributed fiber optic and electronic sensors as well as conventional well logging equipment. Data from the permanently installed sensors were used to monitor and evaluate the cementation process as well as the onset of the cement hydration. Based on the data, the understanding of downhole fluid dynamics during cementation could be improved. Our analysis suggests that the cement was diluted during cement placement and partly lost into the formation. These findings can help to better prepare for future drilling ventures under similar downhole conditions.

Cementing a casing string is considered one of the most important operations during the construction of a wellbore (Allouche et al. 2006). Not only does the cement prevent short mixing of fluids from different geological formations, it also gives the well construction its required strength to withstand hostile downhole environments. The completion of deep geothermal wells is challenging because of high pressure and temperature at depth and high radial thermal gradient during load changes (Teodoriu and Falcone 2009). High-temperature geothermal wells in Iceland are typically equipped with a conductor casing, a surface casing, an anchor casing, a production casing and a perforated liner. Such casings are typically cemented to the surface to withstand the extreme thermal and mechanical loads (except the liner which is usually just hanging). The practice to cement the entire casing gives rise to technical challenges during cementation of exceptionally long casings due to the differential pressure conditions both at the casing and the formation (collapse and fracturing). The completion engineer must therefore be very selective in determining the correct cement weight (Salim and Amani 2012). Long cemented production casings (close to 3 km) were introduced in the high-temperature geothermal industry to explore for superhot or supercritical geothermal fluids downhole, e.g., in the Descramble project (Bertani et al. 2018) and IDDP-1 (Pálsson et al. 2014). Long cemented sections require dedicated cementing strategies, e.g., reverse cementing in Iceland (RN-15/DEEPEGS/IDDP-2) (Fridleifsson et al. 2016) or two-stage cementation using a tieback in Italy (Venelle-2). The setting behavior of cement slurry is affected by the temperature occurring in the borehole and the cement additives. Depending on the cementing length and environment, a specific cement mixture is designed which allows for optimal pumping and a quick cement hardening onset once the cement is in place. A higher temperature reduces the setting time so the cement sets quicker compared to a cooler well temperature. A higher temperature also affects the cement rheology. The plastic viscosity and yield point decreases with increasing temperature (Ravi and Sutton 1990). Earlier, such resource conditions were encountered (partly accidentally) and posed an insurmountable barrier to successfully complete and test such wells (Bertini et al. 1980; Fridleifsson et al. 2014; Reinsch et al. 2017).

The cementing slurry is API G cement with 40\(\%\) silica flour and retarder in the first 127 ton. The laboratory analysis of the cement slurry can be found in the Appendix in Tables 4 and 5. The remaining cement slurry was without retarder. Cementing of the casing in well started around 22:45 on September 5th by pumping cement slurry through the kill-line from the top of the well. At 02:45 on the morning of September 6th, 132 m\(^3\) of cement slurry were already pumped into the annulus and the pressure on the casing was noted 15.6 psi (1.07 bar). After pumping the 132 m\(^3\), the annulus needed to be filled up. So, after 6 h, the annulus was filled up with 17.3 m\(^3\) cement slurry with a density of 1970 kg/m\(^3\) at a rate of 0.34 m\(^3\)/min. The cementing operation was finished on September 6th about 10:30 (Stefánsson et al. 2017, 2020).

Temperature (blue line) and pressure (black line) logged on September 6th at 15:00, Q = 0 l/s. Temperature (red line) logged on September 7th at 14:04 after completion of cementing job. Cement bond logs were carried out subsequently. Depth reference is Thor rig floor (9.0 m above surface). Figure modified from (Stefánsson et al. 2020)

Because the water table is at around 700 m before cementing starts, we assume the following model for the falling annular cement droplets during the reverse cementing operation. We assume that the wall friction of the fluid is balancing the hydrostatic pressure gradient. This requires the fluid to maintain contact with the walls as the blobs are falling down the annulus, and for simplicity, only single-phase flow is considered while counter-current flow of air escaping upwards is neglected. If wall contact is not maintained, the blobs would accelerate indefinitely unless two-phase effects are accounted for.


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